Deep wound infection following joint replacement is one of the most devastating complications facing both the physician and patient. The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is a well-accepted adjunct for treatment of an established infection. However, its use for prophylaxis in the prevention of infection remains controversial in North America. Since the 1970’s, the use of ALBC in Europe has been extremely widespread as a method of prophylaxis in both primary and aseptic revision joint replacement surgery. This handout presents available data which supports the efficacy of ALBC as a method of infection prevention in joint replacement.